Undergraduate education

University of Michigan, BA, 1990

Years in MSTP



Medical microbiology and immunology, 1996


Richard Proctor, MD

Thesis title

Adenine Nucleotide Regulation of Murine Endotoxicity


Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999-2002


Pulmonary and critical care medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002-2004

Current position

Professor, Department of Medicine-Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health

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PhD publications

Denlinger LC, Sommer JA, Parker K, Gudipaty L, Fisette PL, Watters JW, Proctor RA, Dubyak GR, Bertics PJ. Mutation of a dibasic amino acid motif within the C terminus of the P2X7 nucleotide receptor results in trafficking defects and impaired function. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 1;171(3):1304-11. PMID: 12874219.

Guerra AN, Fisette PL, Pfeiffer ZA, Quinchia-Rios BH, Prabhu U, Aga M, Denlinger LC, Guadarrama AG, Abozeid S, Sommer JA, Proctor RA, Bertics PJ. Purinergic receptor regulation of LPS-induced signaling and pathophysiology. J Endotoxin Res. 2003;9(4):256-63. PMID: 12935357.

Denlinger LC, Fisette PL, Sommer JA, Watters JJ, Prabhu U, Dubyak GR, Proctor RA, Bertics PJ. Cutting edge: the nucleotide receptor P2X7 contains multiple protein- and lipid-interaction motifs including a potential binding site for bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2001 Aug 15;167(4):1871-6. PMID: 11489964.

Denlinger LC, Proctor RA. Paradoxical neutrophil activation and coagulopathy during the recovery phase after endotoxemia. Crit Care Med. 2001 Feb;29(2):452-3. Review. PMID: 11258355.

Denlinger LC, Proctor RA. Potential risk factors for developing apoptosis during septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2000 Jun;28(6):2133-4. PMID: 10890678.

Hu Y, Fisette PL, Denlinger LC, Guadarrama AG, Sommer JA, Proctor RA, Bertics PJ. Purinergic receptor modulation of lipopolysaccharide signaling and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 16;273(42):27170-5. PMID: 9765236.

Denlinger LC, Garis KA, Sommer JA, Guadarrama AG, Proctor RA, Bertics PJ. Nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages fails to correspond to endotoxicity: evidence suggesting a requirement for a gamma interferon-like signal. Infect Immun. 1998 Apr;66(4):1638-47. PMID: 9529092; PMCID: PMC108099.

Fisette PL, Denlinger LC, Proctor RA, Bertics PJ. Modulation of macrophage function by P2Y-purinergic receptors. Drug Development Research. 1996 Nov; 39(3-4):377-387.

Denlinger LC, Fisette PL, Garis KA, Kwon G, Vazquez-Torres A, Simon AD, Nguyen B, Proctor RA, Bertics PJ, Corbett JA. Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by macrophage purinoreceptors and calcium. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 5;271(1):337-42. PMID: 8550583.

Proctor RA, Denlinger LC, Leventhal PS, Daugherty SK, van de Loo JW, Tanke T, Firestein GS, Bertics PJ. Protection of mice from endotoxic death by 2-methylthio-ATP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jun 1;91(13):6017-20. PMID: 8016108; PMCID: PMC44128.