Undergraduate education

University of Massachusetts-Amherst, BS, 2004

Years in MSTP



Biochemistry, 2011


Ron Raines, PhD

Thesis title

Applications of the trimethyl lock in fluorogenic enzyme substrates


General Surgery, University of California-San Diego, 2013-2018


Vascular Surgery, University of California-San Diego, 2018-

Current position

Fellow, Department of Surgery-Vascular Surgery, University of California-San Diego School of Medicine

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PhD publications

Levine MN, Raines RT. Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase. Anal Biochem. 2011 Nov 15;418(2):247-52. PMID: 21827735; PMCID: PMC3172393.

Levine MN, Lavis LD, Raines RT. Trimethyl lock: a stable chromogenic substrate for esterases. Molecules. 2008 Jan 31;13(2):204-11. PMID: 18305412; PMCID: PMC2803762.

Levine MN, Hoang TT, Raines RT. Fluorogenic probe for constitutive cellular endocytosis. Chem Biol. 2013 Apr 18;20(4):614-8. PMID: 23601650; PMCID: PMC3671891.