Undergraduate education

Northwestern, BA, 2000

Years in MSTP



Cellular and molecular biology, 2006


Paul Sondel, MD, PhD

Thesis title

Antittumor Effects by Macrophages Activated with an Agonist Monoclonal Antibody to CD40


Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 2008-2011


Geriatric medicine, University of Colorado-Denver, 2011-2012

Hospice and palliative medicine, University of Colorado-Denver, 2012-2013

Current position

Assistant professor, Department of Medicine-Geriatrics, University of Colorado-Denver, School of Medicine

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PhD publications

Johnson EE, Yamane BH, Buhtoiarov IN, Lum HD, Rakhmilevich AL, Mahvi DM, Gillies SD, Sondel PM. Radiofrequency ablation combined with KS-IL2 immunocytokine (EMD 273066) results in an enhanced antitumor effect against murine colon adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 1;15(15):4875-84. PMID: 19638464; PMCID: PMC2735865.

Johnson EE, Lum HD, Rakhmilevich AL, Schmidt BE, Furlong M, Buhtoiarov IN, Hank JA, Raubitschek A, Colcher D, Reisfeld RA, Gillies SD, Sondel PM. Intratumoral immunocytokine treatment results in enhanced antitumor effects. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008 Dec;57(12):1891-902. PMID: 18438664; PMCID: PMC2574976.

Lum HD, Buhtoiarov IN, Schmidt BE, Berke G, Paulnock DM, Sondel PM, Rakhmilevich AL. Tumoristatic effects of anti-CD40 mAb-activated macrophages involve nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Immunology. 2006 Jun;118(2):261-70. PMID: 16771862; PMCID: PMC1782283.

Lum HD, Buhtoiarov IN, Schmidt BE, Berke G, Paulnock DM, Sondel PM, Rakhmilevich AL. In vivo CD40 ligation can induce T-cell-independent antitumor effects that involve macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Jun;79(6):1181-92. PMID: 16565324.

Buhtoiarov IN, Lum HD, Berke G, Sondel PM, Rakhmilevich AL. Synergistic activation of macrophages via CD40 and TLR9 results in T cell independent antitumor effects. J Immunol. 2006 Jan 1;176(1):309-18. PMID: 16365423.

Buhtoiarov IN, Lum H, Berke G, Paulnock DM, Sondel PM, Rakhmilevich AL. CD40 ligation activates murine macrophages via an IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism resulting in tumor cell destruction in vitro. J Immunol. 2005 May 15;174(10):6013-22. PMID: 15879094.

Neal ZC, Yang JC, Rakhmilevich AL, Buhtoiarov IN, Lum HE, Imboden M, Hank JA, Lode HN, Reisfeld RA, Gillies SD, Sondel PM. Enhanced activity of hu14.18-IL2 immunocytokine against murine NXS2 neuroblastoma when combined with interleukin 2 therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 15;10(14):4839-47. PMID: 15269160.