Undergraduate education

Princeton University, BA, 1984

Years in MSTP



Human oncology, 1992


Paul Sondel, MD, PhD

Thesis title

Characterization of the IL-2 Receptors Expressed on Human l Lymphocytes Activated In Vivo During Systemic IL-2 Therapy


Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess, Boston, 1996-2000


Pediatric radiology, Children's Hospital of Boston, 2000-2001

Current position

Associate professor, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital of Boston

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PhD publications

Farner NL, Voss SD, Leary TP, Gan J, Hakimi J, Evans G, Ju G, Sondel PM. Distinction between gamma c detection and function in YT lymphoid cells and in the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-responsive human myeloid cell line, Tf-1. Blood. 1995 Dec 15;86(12):4568-78. PubMed PMID: 8541547.

Farner NL, Voss SD, Sondel PM. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease and the gamma c receptor component: prospects for molecular diagnosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1995 Sep;2(5):518-23. PMID: 8548528; PMCID: PMC170193.

Sondel PM, Voss SD, Hong R. Addendum to SCID, interleukin-2, and the interleukin-2 receptor review. Blood. 1994 Jul 15;84(2):667-8. PMID: 8025293.

Voss SD, Hong R, Sondel PM. Severe combined immunodeficiency, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and the IL-2 receptor: experiments of nature continue to point the way. Blood. 1994 Feb 1;83(3):626-35. PMID: 8298124.

Voss SD, Leary TP, Sondel PM, Robb RJ. Identification of a direct interaction between interleukin 2 and the p64 interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 15;90(6):2428-32. PMID: 7681595; PMCID: PMC46100.

Kaur I, Voss SD, Gupta RS, Schell K, Fisch P, Sondel PM. Human peripheral gamma delta T cells recognize hsp60 molecules on Daudi Burkitt's lymphoma cells. J Immunol. 1993 Mar 1;150(5):2046-55. PMID: 8094731.

Voss SD, Sondel PM, Robb RJ. Characterization of the interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) expressed on human natural killer cells activated in vivo by IL-2: association of the p64 IL-2R gamma chain with the IL-2R beta chain in functional intermediate-affinity IL-2R. J Exp Med. 1992 Aug 1;176(2):531-41. PMID: 1500859; PMCID: PMC2119323.

Bogner MP, Voss SD, Bechhofer R, Hank JA, Roper M, Poplack D, Hammond D, Sondel PM. Serum CD25 levels during interleukin-2 therapy: dose dependence and correlations with clinical toxicity and lymphocyte surface sCD25 expression. J Immunother (1991). 1992 Feb;11(2):111-8. PMID: 1571333.

Voss SD, Robb RJ, Weil-Hillman G, Hank JA, Sugamura K, Tsudo M, Sondel PM. Increased expression of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor beta chain (p70) on CD56+ natural killer cells after in vivo IL-2 therapy: p70 expression does not alone predict the level of intermediate affinity IL-2 binding. J Exp Med. 1990 Oct 1;172(4):1101-14. PMID: 1698909; PMCID: PMC2188601.

Weil-Hillman G, Voss SD, Fisch P, Schell K, Hank JA, Sosman JA, Sugamura K, Sondel PM. Natural killer cells activated by interleukin 2 treatment in vivo respond to interleukin 2 primarily through the p75 receptor and maintain the p55 (TAC) negative phenotype. Cancer Res. 1990 May 1;50(9):2683-91. PMID: 1691679.

Voss SD, Hank JA, Nobis CA, Fisch P, Sosman JA, Sondel PM. Serum levels of the low-affinity interleukin-2 receptor molecule (TAC) during IL-2 therapy reflect systemic lymphoid mass activation. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989;29(4):261-9. PMID: 2787694.

Voss SD, Weil-Hillman G, Hank JA, Sosman JA, Sondel PM. The clinical immunobiology of interleukin-2: potential modified uses for improved cancer treatment. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1989 Jan;65(1):93-110. PMID: 2690996; PMCID: PMC1807781.