Since 2008, the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW) has gathered vital baseline information to present a current and comprehensive picture of the health of the residents of Wisconsin. SHOW gathers data on health and a wide range of health determinants including social and economic factors, health care access, mental health, quality of life, discrimination and neighborhood perceptions.
Surveys are complemented by physical measurements including height, weight, blood pressure and lung function. The program also collects biosamples for a wide range of research.
SHOW conducts household-based examination surveys on representative samples of general population (non-institutionalized) Wisconsin residents in urban, suburban and rural settings across the state.
Individuals living in the selected households receive an advanced mailing to describe the project and trained field staff make visits to screen, enumerate and recruit individuals in the household. Starting in 2019, individuals can also voluntarily provide contact information at community-based events. These individuals are screened as well before invited to participate.Informed-consent is completed at the scheduled, in-home return visit.
SHOW has recruited over 6,000 residents to participate to-date.
Note: Of the eleven Native American tribes in Wisconsin, only the Menominee Tribe has granted permission for the survey to be conducted on their land. As a result, all of the residences on tribal land, with the exception of the Menominee Reservation, have so far been excluded from SHOW sampling frames.
From 2008-13, a new, independent sample was identified each year, using a two-stage, probability-based stratified cluster sampling approach.
Primary sampling unit: census block group, stratified by poverty, randomly selected with probability proportional to size
Secondary sampling unit: households, randomly selected
Surveys were completed among adults 21-74 years of age.
For the next 3 years, 2014-16, a three-stage sampling approach was taken, adding county, stratified by mortality as the first-stage of the approach. Milwaukee and Dane counties were selected with certainty due to their large size relative to the other 70 counties; 10 counties in total were selected for visits (in 11 stands) over a three-year period.
Surveys were completed among persons of all ages, including children and adults.
In 2017, a longitudinal sample of adults was identified among prior 2008-13 SHOW cohort members. Children living in these households were also invited to participate in the survey.
2019 convenience sampling
To focus on collecting survey information from underrepresented groups, SHOW revised their recruitment methods to include convenience sampling at community events. Staff provided potential participants information about all survey components, as well as address any questions regarding the process. Those interested could voluntarily fill out a contact sheet to be screened via telephone at a later time. Once determined to qualify for the study, staff scheduled the in-home visit and sample collection appointment.
Beginning in 2014, children were included in the SHOW sample. To-date, over 700 children zero to 17 years of age have participated in the survey.
Parents or guardians are asked questions about their child’s health and functioning and respiratory health. They also answer questions for children under 12 years of age on physical activity, screen time, diet and sleep. Children 12-17 years old are asked these questions directly.
Physical measurements include height, weight, waist and hip measures for children three years and older. Blood pressure, lung function and accelerometry are performed with children six to 17 years of age.
Data collected about children
|Questionnaires or measurements||Ages when parent is proxy||Age when data is collected with child||Questions|
|Physical activity||3-11||12-17||Physical activity, school attendance, school facilities use and physical education class frequency|
|Screen time||3-11||12-17||Sedentary behavior and screen time|
|Diet||3-11||12-17||Eating habits (fruit, fruit juice, vegetable intake, type of milk, sweetened beverages, school lunches, meals away from home|
|Sleep: infant||0-2||Sleep habits, duration, quality|
|Sleep: younger children||3-11||Sleep habits, duration, napping, quality|
|Sleep: older children||12-17||Sleep duration, napping, quality, sleep disorders, sleepiness|
|Health and functioning||0-17||Health and functioning instrument includes questions on conditions affecting behavior, learning, growth and physical development|
|Respiratory health||0-17||Questions on respiratory health and disease including wheezing, asthma diagnosis and treatment|
|Height||3-17||Measure twice using a stadiometer|
|Blood pressure||6-17||Seated blood pressure, measured three times|
|Accelerometry||6-17||ActiGraph worn on wrist for eight days|
Field team members are trained and certified to perform physical measurements.
- Weight is recorded in kilograms and is measured using a digital scale.
- Height is recorded in centimeters and is measured using a stadiometer.
- Additional measures include hip and waist circumference using a measuring tape.
Blood pressure and pulse
Blood pressure and pulse are measured using the Omron HBP-1300 digital blood pressure monitor. Arm circumference is measured for appropriate cuff size and three measurements of blood pressure (in sitting position) and pulse are taken one minute apart and recorded.
Lung function is determined using spirometry, which measures lung capacity. The test is performed on participants after 13 screening questions are asked to rule out any contraindications to determine if spirometry is safe for the participant.
SHOW uses the Jaeger AM1+ electronic peak flow meter handheld device and a filtered mouthpiece that fits over the device sensor. It provides measurements in liters per minute. The test is performed at least three times. Two variables (FEV1 and FVC) are recorded:
- FEV1: Forced Expiratory Volume in one second is the amount exhaled in the first second.
- FVC: Forced Vital Capacity is the total amount exhaled.
SHOW collects subjective data on physical activity and sleep via questionnaires since its inception. Objective measures on physical activity and sleep are also being collected since 2014. SHOW uses ActiGraph collection devices. Data are processed and analyzed using ActiLife sotware.
Adult participants wear wrist and hip ActiGraphs for eight days. Children six years of age or older are asked to wear a wrist ActiGraph for eight days.
Please contact us for more details if you are interested in working with accelerometry data.